Vegetarianism -The E-numbers from animal origins and additional food ingredients (1.0)
This article is from the book “Meditation and the book of Time and Life Management (version 1.0) -by Norbert (2015)” (To read the whole book online visit book1.vr2b1.org or subscribe here and get the pdf edition for free.)
In this section I will share with you the e-numbers and their names that are usually or sometimes derived from animals. This section is a compilation from various websites, and it can be considered one of the strictest compilations that currently exist. If you are not living in a country where English is the state language, you can make your own list by checking the e-numbers’ actual names, and for that you can also use Wikipedia.org…
If you are interested in a downloadable, simplified and free E-number list in pdf, epub and kindle format (that you can carry with you on your phone and which you can use offline) please click here. (The link will be opened in an other tab so you can come back to this page later.) This post you are reading is a rather detailed one and contains additional tips and details about these numbers. P.S.: if you think that the list is useful please share it with others. Thanks.
How I prepared the e-number compilation
When I made this compilation I started up with my own old list, which I had to translate from Hungarian to English, than I compared my list to other English sites, and finally I came up with the list you can find in this chapter. In reality my original list was stricter, compared to the list on the other sites, and I did not add new items to it, but I was curious why the other sites left out clearly risky products, and by my research I concentrated more on those numbers. In reality my old list was not entirely correct. For a long time I thought that glutamate can be only obtained by killing the animals, but while creating this compilation I found out that glutamate is obtained 100% from plant, but since I read also about the negative effect of that substance I rather leave out also that substance from my diet.
There are certain food additives or rather food ingredients that are derived from animals but are without E-numbers. E.g.: gelatin (which previously had an E-number and it was E441) or Rennet. I will start the new list with those products, than I will continue with the actual E-numbers and their name, and I will provide you occasionally some background information about those additives, which is actually a compilation from the various websites I checked while comparing my list to their lists
Selecting your products
To make your situation easier in the beginning, I would say that you should at all cost avoid all those food products where animals need to be killed, and you could rather trust the companies that they use plant based ingredients where it is a very small chance of using animal based ingredient, although you can follow the strictest guideline, and with that you will minimize your chance of eating from those substances to almost zero. Please note that if the products don’t detail the exact name or number of the added additive, but it says only the different additive categories so that e.g.: flavor enhancer, coloring, that can mean a substance that can be obtained only by killing an animal, so in those cases you rather say no. I would also advice you to stay away from artificial preservatives, (but also from colors and aromas), because they can make you vulnerable to illnesses and to various allergies. Sadly many of the preserved vegetables contain e.g.: Benzoate (preservative) or Saccharin or Aspartame (artificial sweetener), which can be especially annoying if you are vegan and you want to leave out from your diet also those harmful substances. I think the problem is not with if you eat these substances only occasionally, but the problematic part can be if you eat them regularly, so I would advice to special caution.
I reality living our life in the shadow of the e-numbers can be exhausting if we, but there are tricks that can make the experience bearable or rather unnoticeable. First of all, accept that there will be foods that you will not eat, and if it is a product that has a substitute counterpart, than don’t complain, but buy those products. If you prefer which contains only the necessary ingredients and the products without e-numbers, or without unfamiliar strange names and without artificial sweeteners and preservatives you don’t really have to check the e-number list. (Again eating artificial stuffs are not “banned”, but at least reduce the consumption of those materials, to be on the safe side as far as your health is concerned…) In reality if you selected the products, and you buy always those products and you are not interested in others than you will not really feel the limitation of this lifestyle. E.g.: Because I previously thought that glutamate is from killed animals I was in trouble when I wanted to buy a flavored chips, so I always bought the simplest one, which contained only potato, oil and salt. And I did so, because all the famous trademark had the glutamate in it, although nowadays there are editions where they use only potato, oil, salt and seasonings. In reality although I found out that glutamate is from plants, I somehow don’t trust that substance, so I continue with the limitation, although I don’t feel that I’m limited…) Additionally later you will start to recognize different names on the food labels, and it is also advisable to remember also the names of the additives that are 100% from plant origin especially if you meet with them many times so e.g.: Guar gum, pectin (which is a gelling agent) which could be used as a substitutes for gelatin.
Not just the food industry uses animal parts
In reality apart from the food industry there are many other industries that use animal parts in their production, even though they could substitute them with plant based products… Medicines can contain additives and ingredients where it is 100% sure that the animals were killed to get the substance. E.g.: lots of medicines contain gelatin, which are usually capsule which contains visible gel, but the ingredients will list that substance… What we have to decide here is how important is that medicine is and whether there are substitute. Additionally to all of these many beauty products were tested on animals, many showering gels can contain parts from animals, and this can make things even harder. And as I already said in other chapter that, our clothes can be also made by using animal skins, and our pillow can contain feathers from killed animals and animal skin can be used by manufacturing sofa… We could consider and say that skin is usually the byproduct of the meat-eating and the animals are not killed for their skin (usually) but they are killed for their meat. The majority of the quality shoes are made of animal skin, and if you are looking for a good looking water proof shoes e.g.: for hiking your options are very limited. I would say that in an ideal society (which I’m working on) we would only use plastic and plants for every clothes but now, until the animals are not killed especially for their skin do as you feel like. So if the animal is killed primary for his/her skin and fur, you should avoid those products, but if it is a byproduct of the meat-eating you could buy such product -but limit yourself to the shoe, and don’t lower your vibration with eating “byproducts” from the meat industry. (On the other hand if you plan to start with shoe producing company, have a good designer, make comfortable (not pointed), durable and waterproof shoes, use only plastic and plants and send me one 43.5-44 sized black one, because I just simply cannot find the product, which contains all of the good features in 1, although I really tried hard -and the unbelievable part is, that sometimes even waterproof shoes cannot stand a “bit” stronger rain…
Restaurants and the cheese with Rennet
So as a rule as far as eating dishes are concerned -everything that contains animal part you should avoid. Than if you eat out in restaurants, you should know that many times the base ingredients for sauces (even for cheese sauces) is clear soup (in other words consommé, bouillon…) which is a soup made out of meat, bones (beef, veal, poultry or other…), herbs and vegetables -so in case you are planning to eat in restaurant, always check with the cook or waiter, what the food is made of. This can be harder in foreign countries naturally, but if it is really important for us and we cannot ask, we should rather eat potato and salad, that you can even eat in fast food restaurants… To make it even harder it is often the case that breaded cheese, breaded cauliflower… is many times made in the same oil in which the breaded meat was -but I would say, if you are eating out and if you are vegetarian or vegan allow such flexibility in order to feel yourself better, or alternatively eat only potato and salad or it in vegetarian restaurants and pay more for the same creation…
Than when we are by the cheese business, we should know about the base ingredient for many of the cheese varieties which is called the “Rennet”, and which can be created by the help of plants, fungi, microbial sources but also it can be from animal origins, and in that case rennet is a complex of enzymes produced in stomachs of ruminant mammals, which means that the animal must be killed to get those enzymes in the latter case.
“Chymosin, its key component, is a protease enzyme that curdles the casein in milk, helping young mammals digest their mothers’ milk. It can also be used to separate milk into solid curds used for cheesemaking and liquid whey. As each ruminant produces a special kind of rennet, there are milk-specific rennets available (e.g.: lamb rennet for sheep…). Fermentation produced chymosin (FPC) (see below) is used more often in industrial cheesemaking in North America and Europe today because it is less expensive and of higher quality than animal rennet.” Worldwide, there is no industrial production for vegetable rennet. Commercial so-called vegetable rennets usually contain rennet from the mold Mucor miehei.
Traditional method of making rennet: Dried and cleaned stomachs of young calves are sliced into small pieces and then put into saltwater or whey, together with some vinegar or wine to lower the pH of the solution. After some time the solution is filtered.
Fermentation-produced Chymosin (FPC): With the development of genetic engineering, it became possible to extract rennet-producing genes from animal stomach and insert them into certain bacteria, fungi or yeasts to make them produce chymosin during fermentation. The genetically modified microorganism is killed after fermentation and chymosin isolated from the fermentation broth, so that the fermentation-produced chymosin (FPC) used by cheese producers does not contain any GM component or ingredient.
Many soft cheeses are produced without use of rennet, by coagulating milk with acid, such as citric acid or vinegar, or the lactic acid produced by soured milk. Cream cheese, paneer, and rubing are traditionally made this way.” Wikipedia.org
Now with this fact, I probably ruined some vegetarians’ life, but I was just talking about the facts and believe me, that was also a shock for me when I found out about that, years later I became vegetarian… The problem is that since rennet is a base ingredient, it is many times not written in the ingredients list of the product, and if the name is listed it is often the case that the origin is not mentioned. You might have the option of calling the cheese manufacturer and ask them what kinds of rennet they use, but that you cannot ask from the restaurant, or maybe you could ask them to show the label of the cheese, but probably they would be totally surprised because of your request… Alternatively you can make your cheese at home, and there are variations with or without the necessity to use rennet, and if you opt for the rennet based version, you can order plant based rennet from various shops, but you additionally have to know that for 1 kg cheese you need around 10 liter milk.
The signs I used by the E-number list
In the following I will list the E-numbers that are from or that can be from animal origin, and I will use the following marks to distinguish between the origins:
# –Always from killed animals.
#2 –Always from killed animals, according to certain websites, but there are others which state that the substance does not originates from animal.
+ -Can be from animal origin and if it is from an animal, than the animal is killed. (call the producer)
+0 -Can be from animal origin (low chance), but if it is from an animal, than the animal is killed
+1 –Fatty acid based and can be from animal origin, but if it is from an animal, than the animal is killed
+2 –Glycerol based and can be from animal origin, but if it is from an animal, than the animal is killed
@ -Always from animal, but the animal is not killed -although consider how the animals a kept… (e.g.: milk)
& -Can be from animal, but the animal is not killed.
&0 -Can be from animal, but the animal is not killed. (Low chance)
! –Is not from animals, but special caution is to be taken, because of the health effect.
!g -I also marked with “!” the certain additive groups where there is a chance of killing the animal.
Ok –I occasionally used “OK” to additives that are 100% from plants…
As you might noticed I made further distinctions in the “Can be from animal origin and if it is from an animal, than the animal is killed.”, because according to some websites producers usually prefer the cheaper variation of the additive which is usually the plant based. So whether you include those additives on your list or not is something that you should decide for yourself.
Fatty acids and Glycerol according to food-info.net:
“Fats, whether from plant or animal origin, consist of glycerol and generally 3 fatty acids. Fats can enzymatically be split into fatty acids and glycerol.
The fatty acids can be purified and reconnected to glycerol as mono- di- of triglycerides (glycerol with 1, 2 or 3 fatty acids respectively) and chemically the fatty acids from animal or plant origin are identical, so only producer can provide information on the origin, although producers normally choose the cheapest oils to make these fats and this is generally some vegetable oil, although animal fats can not be excluded.” food-info.net
“Glycerol can be either synthetic, or derived from plants (usually soybeans or palm) or animals (usually tallow)”. Wikipedia.org
The E-numbers and the other animal based substances
Please note that your hunt is only complete if you also check the name of the different additives, and for that you need an alphabetic list for the names as well, and many E numbers have more than one names. You can download various lists that you can print out from my website if you are interested. (The definitions are mainly from veggieglobal.com, although certain products are not on the site and that I marked with (nov)
Please note that I’m not an expert in the topic and I rely on 100% of what other stated, which might be right, might be wrong!
The different lines follow this logical description:
numbers (mark e.g.: #;+…) —name (grouping e.g.: sweetener) –description (other source) (nov)
Any animal parts where the animal is killed (#)
Gelatin (#) -I listed Gelatin under E441.
Rennet (+) — If the animal provided the rennet to clot the milk and to create cheese and/or whey might not be suitable for vegetarian
Fatty acid (+) — Fats, whether from plant or animal origin, consist of glycerol and generally 3 fatty acids
Omega-3-fatty acids (+) —Omega-3-fatty acids can be obtained from fish, seals and soy and please note that Omega-3-fatty acid has 3 forms and if the labels talks about “alpha-linolenic acid (ALA)” it is from plant. On the other hand if no marking of origin, it can be handled as risky. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (both commonly found in marine oils). Marine algae and phytoplankton are primary sources of omega-3 fatty acids. Common sources of plant oils containing the omega-3 ALA fatty acid include walnut, edible seeds, clary sage seed oil, algal oil, flaxseed oil, Sacha Inchi oil, Echium oil, and hemp oil, while sources of animal omega-3 EPA and DHA fatty acids include fish oils, egg oil, squid oils, and krill oil.
Omega-3-fatty acids -EPA and DHA (#) (eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)) are from animal sources. Sources of animal omega-3 EPA and DHA fatty acids include fish oils, egg oil, squid oils, and krill oil.
Whey and wheypowder (+) –It is a fraction of milk. If the animal provided the rennet to clot the milk is not for vegetarians. “Sweet whey” is manufactured during the making of rennet types of hard cheese like cheddar or Swiss cheese. “Acid whey” also know as “sour whey” is a by-product produced during the making of acid types of dairy products such as cottage cheese or strained yogurt. (wikipedia.org)
Whey -Acid whey or sour whey (@) (please see the description by the whey entry)
Whey -Sweet whey (+) (please see the description by the whey entry)
Casein and caseinate (@) –A protein from cow’s milk
Lactose (@) –Sugar from cow’s milk
Artificial preservatives, sweeteners… (!) -If you are in a position please avoid Benzoic acid and any benzoate products, because they are not good for the health. (They are preservatives 209-233), but also try to lessen the artificial additives… Saccharin (E954) or Aspartame (E951) are the famous artificial sweetener. There are naturally other artificial products that might be risky for our health so you might want to also include them, but what I emphasized are very common, and they are in many ready made food.
E209-233 -Artificial preservatives
E954 (!) -Saccharin (artificial sweetener)
E951 (!) Aspartame (artificial sweetener)
GMO food (!) –Genetically modified organism -They might be risky for our health.
101 (&0) —Riboflavin (lactoflavin) Yellow food colour. (coloring) — It can be isolated from milk, but commercially produced from micro-organisms. Isolation from milk is too expensive. (food-info.net)
120 (#) —Cochineal, Carminic acid, Carmines Natural Red 4 (color index 75470), Red (Coloring) –A coloring that makes many foods red. Found in alcoholic drinks, fruit pie fillings, jams, many sweets and even cheeses. Cochineal is made from the female insect found on cacti called Dactylopius Coccus. She is boiled alive or left to “cook” alive through sun exposure. Cochineal is the result of crushing scales of the insect into a red powder.
153 (+) —Carbon Black, Vegetable Carbons (coloring) –If the description on product packaging says “Vegetable Carbons”, then it is most likely free of animal derivatives. (but could be derived from GM crops!) But if the additive is described as “Carbon Black”, it ‘s more likely to be derived from various parts of animals. // according to Food-info.net: Prepared from charcoal from burned wood. Can be obtained from burned animals, but this is no longer done.
161g (+) —Canthaxanthin (Natural Orange Colour Xanthophylls) (coloring) –Be aware that although Canthaxanthin is usually derived from plant material, it can sometimes be made from fish and invertebrates with hard shells. // according to Foodinfo.net: Color prepared from mushrooms or synthetically from carotene. Historically it was also prepared from shrimp waste or flaming feathers. Synthetic cantaxanthin is cheaper and has higher purity.
252 (+) —Potassium Nitrate (Saltpetre) (Preservative ) –Saltpetre is usually assumed to be of natural origins but it can be artificially manufactured from waste animal matter. Potassium nitrate is often found in smoked type cheeses – so even if the cheese contains vegetable rennet and not animal rennet, it may contain potassium nitrate made from animal waste, so check with the cheese manufacturer to determine the source of the potassium nitrate.
270 (&) —Lactic Acid (Antioxidant) –Can be obtained from whey. Lactic Acid can be found in carbonated drinks, beer, dressings and various tinned products. // but according to vegsoc.org: commercially produced by bacterial fermentation on starch and molasses
_304 (+0) —scorbyl palmitate, Fatty acid esters of ascorbic acid (i) Ascorbyl palmitate (ii) Ascorbyl stearate, Vitamin C palmitate (Antioxidant, Acidity regulator) — According to myadditives: There is the possibility that the palmitic acid used is obtained from animal fat, although the main source is vegetable fat. (nov)
304i (+0) —scorbyl palmitate, Fatty acid esters of ascorbic acid (i) Ascorbyl palmitate, Vitamin C (Antioxidant, Acidity regulator) — (see 304). (nov)
304ii (+0) —scorbyl palmitate, Fatty acid esters of ascorbic acid (ii) Ascorbyl stearate, Vitamin C palmitate (Antioxidant, Acidity regulator) — (see 304).(nov)
306 (+0) —Tocopherols (vitamin E) E306, 307,308 (antioxidant) –From vegetable oils. Also in animal (fish) oils but these oils are too expensive. Fish oils are, however, used as a source in food supplements, but not in foods, due to the strong flavor. (Food-Info.net)
307 (+0) —Tocopherols (vitamin E) E306, 307,308 (antioxidant) –See 306
308 (+0) —Tocopherols (vitamin E) E306, 307,308 (antioxidant) –See 306
322 (+0) —Lecithins (Emulsifier and Stabilizer) –Some Lecithin contains egg yolks so not suitable for Vegans. Other main sources of Lecithin are from soya bean oil and is likely to be genetically modified (if sourced from countries such as the US) Lecithin can also be directly obtained from animal fat.
_325-7 (&) —Lactates (food acid) –See E270 above. (Food-Info.net)
325 (&) —Sodium Lactate (Antioxidant) –Sodium Lactate is the salt of Lactic Acid. (see E270 above)
326 (&) —Potassium Lactate (Antioxidant / Acidity Regulator) –Another type of salt derived from Lactic Acid. (see E270 above)
327 (&) —Calcium Lactate (Antioxidant) –Another type of salt derived from Lactic Acid. (see E270 above)
375 (+0) —Nicotinic acid (vitamin B3) (colour retention agent) –From yeast. Production from liver is too expensive. (Food-Info.net)
422 (+) —Glycerol (Sweetener,Humectant, Solvent) –There is contention surrounding the origins of Glycerol. Through various industrial reselling practices, a majority of glycerine originates as a by-product of soap manufacturing. Many soaps are manufactured using animal fats. This indicates that even though glycerine occurs naturally in plants, what ends up in food and soap products mostly originates from animals.//food-info.net: Part of animal and vegetable fat. Commercially made synthetically from petroleum. //wikipedia.org:Glycerol can be either synthetic, or derived from plants (usually soybeans or palm) or animals (usually tallow).(Tallow is a rendered form of beef or mutton fat, processed from suet).
430 (+0) —Polyoxyethylene (8) stearate (Emulsifier / Stabiliser) –E numbers 430 to 436 are various types of polyoxyethlene: These additives are very unlikely to originate from animals as they are normally derived from various types of fruit..
431 (+0) —Polyoxyethylene (40) stearate (Emulsifier) –See E 430
432 (+0) —Polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monolaurate polysorbate 20 ( Emulsifier) –See E 430
433 (+0) —Polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monooleate (polysorbate 80 (Emulsifier) –See E 430
434 (+0) —Polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monopalmitate (polysorbate 40 (Emulsifier) –See E 430
435 (+0) —Polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monostearate (polysorbate 60 (Emulsifier) –See E 430
436 (+0) —Polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan tristearate (polysorbate 65 (Emulsifier) –See E 430
((441 (#) –Gelatin (Emulsifier / Gelling Agent ) –You may not find this E number 441 on food ingredients listings anymore because instead of an additive, Gelatine has now been classed as food (made of animal skin and hoofs) in it’s own right. Remember, all types of gelatine are animal based and can be found in dairy products like yoghurts, plus many kinds of confectionery, jellies and other sweets.
442 (+2) –Ammonium phosphatides (Emulsifier) –Amonium phosphatides can sometimes be made using Glycerol (see 422 above) Therefore the finished additive may contain animal fat.
470a (+1) –Sodium, potassium and calcium salts of fatty acids (Emulsifier / Anti-caking Agent) –As 470 is derived from fatty acids, these may originate from animal sources.
470b (+1) –Magnesium Stearate (Emulsifier / Anti-caking Agent) –This is another magnesium salt from fatty acids and like 470a, may originate from animal sources.
471 (+2) –Mono- and Diglycerides of fatty acids (glyceryl monostearate, glyceryl distearate) (Emulsifier) –Because E471 is derived from Glycerine (Glycerol) (see E422 above), there may be a slim chance that E471 might contain animal fats.
_472 a – f (+2) — (Emulsifier) –see 472A
472a (+2) –Acetic acid esters (Emulsifier) –E472 A to F are emulsifiers related to the mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids family: Because the E472 family is derived from Glycerine (Glycerol) (see E422 above), there may be a slim chance that any of these might contain animal fats.
472b (+2) –Lactic acid esters (Emulsifier) –see 472A
472c (+2) –Citric acid esters (Emulsifier) –see 472A
472d (+2) –Tartaric acid esters (Emulsifier) –see 472A
472e (+2) –Mono- and diacetyl tartaric acid esters (Emulsifier) –see 472A
472f (+2) –Mixed acetic and tartaric acid esters (Emulsifier) –see 472A
473 (+1) –Sucrose esters of fatty acids (Emulsifier) –E473 is a sucrose ester of E471, being fatty acids, which may be derived from animals. (vegsoc.org: -fat obtained mainly from plants)
474 (+1) –Sucroglyceride (Emulsifier) –E474 is a glyceride of sucrose ester of E471, being fatty acids, which may be derived from animals.
475 (+1) –Polyglycerol esters of fatty acids (Emulsifier ) –Being an ester of fatty acids which may be derived from animals.
476 (+2) –Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate (Emulsifier ) –As this is produced from glycol esters the glycerol can be sourced from a by-product of animal fats in the manufacturing of soap. Synthetic vegetable fat.
477 (+1) –Propane-1, 2-diol esters of fatty acids, propylene glycol esters of fatty acids – (Emulsifier) –The glycol esters of fatty acids can be sourced from a by-product of animal fats in the manufacturing of soap.
478 (+1) –Lactylated fatty acid esters of glycerol and propane-1 (Emulsifier) –See 477 above
479b (+1) –Thermally oxidized soya bean oil interacted with mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids (Emulsifier) –See 471 above
481 (+2) –Sodium Stearoyl-2-lactylate (Emulsifier ) –See 471 above and 270 (contains Lactic Acid and Stearic Acid)
482 (+2) –Calcium Stearoyl-2-lactylate (Emulsifier ) –See 471 above and 270 (contains Lactic Acid and Stearic Acid)
483 (+2) –Stearyl tartrate (Emulsifier ) –See 471 above
491 (+0) –Sorbitan monostearate (Emulsifier and Stabilizer) –From stearic acid and is used in dried yeast. Stearic acid is found in vegetable and animal fats, but commercial production is usually synthetic. See also 570
492 (+0) –Sorbitan Tristearate (Emulsifier) –See 491
493 (+0) –Sorbitan Monolaurate (Emulsifier) –See 491
494 (+0) –Sorbitan Monooleate (Emulsifier) –See 491
495 (+0) –Sorbitan Monopalmitate (Emulsifier) –See 491
496 (+1) –Sorbitan trioleate (emulsifier) — derived from the mixture of partial tri-esters of sorbitol, and its mono- and dianhydrides with oleic acid – a normal fatty acid derived from plant or animal origin. (everbum.com)(nov)
542 (#) –Bone phosphate (Anti-caking agent) –From animal bones. Since the BSE crisis mainly from pork, but other animal bones are used.
570 (+0) –Stearic Acid Fatty Acid (Anti-caking agent) –Stearic acid is found in vegetable and animal fats, but commercial production is usually synthetic. Often used in dried yeast.
571 (+) –Ammonium stearate, Ammonium salt of stearic acid (Acidity regulator, Anticaking agent.) — are commercially obtained from plant sources, the use of animal fat (including pork and beef) can not be excluded. (myadditives)(nov)
572 (+0) –Magnesium stearate, calcium stearate (Emulsifier and Anti-caking agent) –See Stearic Acid 570
573 (+) –Aluminium stearate, Aluminium salt of stearic acid (Acidity regulator, Anticaking agent.) — commercially obtained from plant sources, the use of animal fat (including pork and beef) can not be excluded. (myadditives)(nov)
585 (&) –Ferrous lactate (Coloring) –A lactate is a compound formed when a mineral is bound to lactic acid. This is why additives named as a lactate may have been derived from an animal source such as whey. (see 270
_620-5 (+0) –Glutamates. (Flavour enhancer) –Commercially only made from sugar by bacterial fermentation or from seaweed. Theoretically from any protein, but that is too expensive. (myadditives)
620 (+0) –glutamic acid (Flavour enhancer) –Commercially only made from sugar by bacterial fermentation or from seaweed. Theoretically from any protein, but that is too expensive. (myadditives)
621 (+0) –monosodium glutamate (MSG) (Flavour enhancer) –See 620 (myadditives)
622 (+0) –monopotassium glutamate (Flavour enhancer) –See 620 (myadditives)
623 (+0) –calcium diglutamate (Flavour enhancer) –See 620 (myadditives)
624 (+0) –monoammonium glutamate (Flavour enhancer) –See 620 (myadditives)
625 (+0) –magnesium diglutamate (Flavour enhancer) –See 620 (myadditives)
626 (+) –Guanylic acid, 5’-, GMP, Guanosine-5’-Monophosphoric Acid (Flavour enhancer) –according to myadditives: Commercially prepared from yeast extract or sardines // but according to wikipedia: commercially produced by microbial fermentation (wikipedia) (wikipedia-myadditives)(nov)
627 (+) –Disodium 5’-guanylate, Disodium guanylate, Sodium guanylate, Disodium Guanosine-5’-Monophosphate, Sodium 5’-Guanylate (Flavour enhancer) — according to myadditives: generally produced from yeasts, but partly also from fish.(nov)
628 (+) –Dipotassium 5’-guanylate, Dipotassium guanylate, Dipotassium Guanosine-5’-Monophosphate, Potassium 5’-Guanylate, Potassium Guanylate. (Flavour enhancer) — according to myadditives: Commercially prepared from yeast extract or sardines (myadditive)(nov)
629 (+) –Calcium 5’-guanylate, Calcium guanylate (Flavour enhancer) — Commercially prepared from yeast extract or sardines (myadditive)(nov)
630 (#2) –Inosinic acid, 5’-, IMP (Flavour enhancer) — Commercially prepared from meat or fish (sardines).(myadditive)(nov)
631 (#) –Disodium inosinate (Flavour enhancer) –Almost always made from animals and fish (vegsoc.org: -maybe can be produced by bacterial fermentation of sugar, but comercially prepared form meat
632 (#2) –Potassium 5-inosinate, Dipotassium inosinate, Dipotassium Inosine-5’-Monophosphate, Potassium 5’-Inosinate, Potassium Inosinate. (Flavour enhancer) –Potassium salt of inosinic acid (E630), a natural acid, that is mainly present in animals. Commercially prepared from meat or fish (sardines). May also be produced by bacterial fermentation of sugars (myadditives)(nov)
633 (#2) –Calcium 5’-inosinate, Calcium inosinate (Flavour enhancer) –Calcium salt of inosinic acid (E630), a natural acid, that is mainly present in animals. Commercially prepared from meat or fish (sardines). May also be produced by bacterial fermentation of sugars. (nov)
634 (#2) –Calcium 5’-ribonucleotides, Calcium ribonucleotides (Flavour enhancer) –according to food-info.net: Mixture of calcium salts of guanylic (E626) and inosinic acid (E630),, Guanylates and inosinates are generally produced from meat, but partly also from fish.(nov)
635 (#) –Disodium 5′-ribonucleotides (Flavor enhancer) –Often made from animals
640 (+) –Glycine and its sodium salt (Flavor enhancer) –Can sometimes be prepared from gelatine + synthetically.
901 (@) –Beeswax -white and yellow (Glazing Agent) –Made by bees, but does not contain insects.
904 (+) –Shellac (Glazing Agent) –Shellac is a resin secreted by an insect called the lac bug Laccifer lacca Kerr (Coccidae) . It is often unclear as to whether the insect is killed in the process of commercially obtaining shellac as the resin is left by the insect on various plants. Whether this resin is harvested as a residue or extracted by directly killing the insects needs further investigation. (veggieglobal)
910 (+) –L-cysteine (Improving agent) –Produced commercially from animal and human hair (and feathers). When produced from animal hair it is almost certain that all L-cysteine is taken from slaughtered animals. When human hair is used it is often sourced from women in third-world countries. L-cysteine is used as an additive in around 5% of bread and other bakery products. It is not used in wholemeal bread or other wholemeal bakery products.
911 (+) –Methyl esters of fatty acids (glazing agents)(flavorings)(coatings) –Fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) are a type of fatty acid ester that are derived by transesterification of fats with methanol. The molecules in biodiesel are primarily FAMEs, usually obtained from vegetable oils by transesterification.(wikipedia)(nov)
913 (@) –Lanolin, Sheep wool grease –A wax from sheep. It is excreted by the skin of the sheep and extracted from the wool. (nov)
920 (+) –L-cysteine hydrochloride (Improving agent ) –Produced from L-cystine (see 910 above)
921 (+) –L-cysteine hydrochloride monohydrate (Improving agent) –Produced from L-cystine (see 910 above)
966 (&) –Lactitol (Sweetener) –Derived from Lactose, commercially prepared using whey, it might be not suitable for vegans. (everbum.com) (If this additive can be obtained also by sweet whey for which rennet is necessary than it might be risky for vegetarians, but if it is from sour whey than vegetarians could consume as well… How it is actually produced I’m not sure.)
1000 (+) –Cholic acid (Emulsifier) –Normal component of the bile of all vertebrates. Extracted from the bile of cows, but can also be produced synthetically (everbum.com)(nov)
1105 (&) –Lysozyme (Preservative) –An enzyme, that is a normal constituent of tears, saliva, blood and (human) milk. Commercially prepared from chicken eggs or by bacteria (everbum.com)(nov)
1411 (+2) –Distarch glycerol (thickener)(stabilizer)(emulsifier) — prepared by treating starch with glycerol. (everbum.com) (nov)
1423 (+2) –Acetylated distarch glycerol (thickener)(stabilizer)(emulsifier) — prepared by treating starch with acetic acid anhydride and glycerol to improve stability at high temperatures and after cooling. (everbum.com)(nov)
1430 (+2) –Distarch glycerine (stabiliser)( emulsifier)(thickener) — prepared by treating starch with glycerol. (everbum.com)(nov)
1441 (+2) –Hydroxy propyl distarch glycerine (stabiliser) — prepared by treating starch with propylene oxide, epichlorhydrine and glycerol. (everbum.com)(nov)
1443 (+2) –Hydroxy propyl distarch glycerol (thickener, stabiliser, and emulsifier) — prepared by treating starch with propylene oxide, epichlorhydrine and glycerol. (everbum.com)(nov)
1516 (+2) –Glyceryl monoacetate (flavorings) — commercially produced from acetic acid and glycerol. (everbum.com)(nov)
1517 (+2) –Glyceryl diacetate or diacetin (flavor solvent) — commercially produced from acetic acid and glycerol. (everbum.com)(nov)
1518 (+2) –Glyceryl triacetate or triacetin (flavorings)(humectant) –Glyceryl triacetate also known as triacetin is the triester of glycerol and acetic acid. (everbum.com)(nov)
1520 (+2) –Propylene glycol, Propandiol 1,2 (humectants)( solvent stabiliser) –Propane 1,2-diol also known as propylene glycol, is an organic compound that is commercially produced by the hydration of propylene oxide, but can also be derived from glycerol.
If you find no E-number markings but the following groupings, it can refer to additives that are from killed animals:
(!g) –Flavor enhancer (can be E630-E635)
(!g) –Anti-caking agent (can be E542)
(!g) –Gelling Agent (can be Gelatine)
(!g) –Emulsifier (can be Gelatine)
(!g) –Natural Coloring (can be E120)
(!g) –Fatty acid
Vitamin B12 (ok) –Commercially only made by bacterial fermentation. Isolation from meat is too expensive, due to the very low concentrations. Please note that as a vegetarian you have to take special attention to this vitamin, but also to many other vitamins and minerals
440a (OK) —pectin
412 (OK) —guar gum (thickener, vegetable gum, stabilizer) —
927b (ok) –Ureum Synthetic (flour treatment agent) –Can be isolated from urine, but too complicated and expensive.
641 (+0) –L-leucin (Flavor enhancer) –L-leucine is produced via fermentation from carbohydrate sources. Ajinomoto manufactures L-leucine under cGMP conditions. L-leucine is 100% free of materials of animal origin, as are all Ajinomoto amino acids. A Drug Master File for L-leucine is on file (ajiaminoscience.com)(nov)
While I was compiling my new list I checked the following websites, for confirmation regarding animal origins.
veggieglobal.com -Most of the definitions are based on this site but note this website does not contain all the e-number that was on my original list.
vegsoc.org -I checked out this site as well, but their list excluded many e-numbers that can be from animal origins.
Food-Info.net -some e-numbers from animal origins are not included
And the following sites contain almost all the e-numbers that can be used as food additives from 100-1600, but maybe also more…
Quick -E-number list
You can select the numbers and the names that you want to exclude from your dietary, and you can simply delete the ones you are not interested in. I underlined the ones, where it is almost 100% that the animal is killed. Please note that if you want to follow the strictest guidelines you should use all the 3 lists (number, expanded, name lists) without modification. (See below). (But you can simplify the list by saying:
(1) The numbers:
101(&0), 120(#), 153(+), 161g(+), 252(+), 270(&), _304(+0), 304i(+0), 304ii(+0), 306(+0), 307(+0), 308(+0), 322(+0), 325(&), _325-7(&), 326(&), 327(&), 375(+0), 412(OK), 422(+), 430(+0), 431(+0), 432(+0), 433(+0), 434(+0), 435(+0), 436(+0), ((441(#), 442(+2), 470a(+1), 470b(+1), 471(+2), _472 a-f(+2), 472a(+2), 472b (+2), 472c(+2), 472d(+2), 472e(+2), 472f(+2), 473(+1), 474(+1), 475(+1), 476(+2), 477(+1), 478(+1), 479b(+1), 481(+2), 482(+2), 483(+2), 491(+0), 492(+0), 493(+0), 494(+0), 495(+0), 496(+1), 542(#), 570(+0), 571(+), 572(+0), 573(+), 585(&), _620-5(+0), 620(+0), 621(+0), 622(+0), 623(+0), 624(+0), 625(+0), 626(+), 627(+), 628(+), 629(+), 630(#2), 631(#), 632(#2), 633(#2), 634(#2), 635(#), 640(+), 641(+0), 901(@), 904(+), 910(+), 911(+), 913(@), 920(+), 921(+), 927b(ok), 966(&), 1000(+), 1105(&), 1411(+2), 1423(+2), 1430(+2), 1441(+2), 1443(+2), 1516(+2), 1517(+2), 1518(+2), 1520(+2)
Shortened but full list:
101(&0), 120(#), 153(+), 161g(+), 252(+), 270(&), _304(+0), 306-308(+0), 322(+0), _325-7(&), 375(+0), 412(OK), 422(+), 430- 436(+0), ((441(#), 442(+2), 470(+1), 471(+2), _472 a-f(+2), 473-475(+1), 476(+2), 477-479b(+1), 481-483(+2), 491-495(+0), 496(+1), 542(#), 570-573(+), 585(&), _620-5(+0), 626-629(+), 630-635(#), 640(+), 641(+0), 901(@), 904(+), 910(+), 911(+), 913(@), 920(+), 921(+), 927b(ok), 966(&), 1000(+), 1105(&), 1411(+2), 1423(+2), 1430(+2), 1441(+2), 1443(+2), 1516-1518(+2), 1520(+2)
(2) Expanded elements for the E number list. This list you should also use for the list where only the names are listed…
Any animal parts where the animal is killed (#)
Fatty acid (+),
Omega-3-fatty acids (+)
Omega-3-fatty acids alpha-linolenic acid (ALA)” (OK)
Omega-3-fatty acids -EPA and DHA (#)
Whey -Acid whey or sour whey (@)
Whey -Sweet whey (+)
Casein and caseinate (@)
Artificial preservatives, sweeteners… (!)
209-233 -Artificial preservatives
954 (!) -Saccharin (artificial sweetener)
951 (!) Aspartame (artificial sweetener)
GMO food (!)
Groupings: Anti-caking agent (can be E542), Emulsifier (can be Gelatine), Fatty acid, Flavor enhancer (can be E630-E635), Gelling Agent (can be Gelatine), Natural Coloring (can be E120)
(3) The name list:
Instructions: If you have a Microsoft word program and if you replace the characters from this bracket (, ) to this (^p) character you will have a list where every row contains only 1 element, to work easier with the elements. On the other hand you can reverse your selection if you change this (^p) to that (, ). (Please note that you should not include the bracket while you want to make the replacement. So instead (^p) you should use: ^p. This might work also by other text editor programs, but about that I cannot say anything.
(The reason for the longer list compared to the numbers is because certain numbers could have more names (some even 5)…)
The animal is killed for these additives almost 100%:
5”- IMP(#), 75470 color index)(#), Bone phosphate(#), Calcium 5”-inosinate(#), Calcium 5”-ribonucleotides(#), Calcium inosinate(#), Calcium ribonucleotides(#), Carmines Natural Red 4(#), Carminic acid(#), Cochineal(#), Dipotassium inosinate(#), Dipotassium Inosine-5”-Monophosphate(#), Disodium 5′-ribonucleotides(#), Disodium inosinate(#), Gelatine(#), Inosinic acid, Potassium 5”-Inosinate(#), Potassium 5-inosinate(#), Potassium Inosinate(#), Red(not every red is E120)(#)
The animal might be killed:
5”-GMP(+), Acetic acid esters(+), Acetylated distarch glycerol(+), Aluminium salt of stearic acid(+), Aluminium stearate(+), Ammonium phosphatides(+), Ammonium salt of stearic acid(+), Ammonium stearate(+), Ascorbyl stearate(+), Beeswax -white and yellow(@), Black Carbon(+), Calcium 5”-guanylate(+), calcium diglutamate(+), Calcium guanylate(+), Calcium Lactate(&), calcium salts of fatty acids(+), Calcium stearate(+), Calcium Stearoyl-2-lactylate(+), Canthaxanthin(+), Carbon Black(+), Casein and caseinate(@), Cholic acid(+), Citric acid esters(+), Dipotassium 5”-guanylate(+), Dipotassium Guanosine-5”-Monophosphate(+), Dipotassium guanylate(+), Disodium 5”-guanylate(+), Disodium Guanosine-5”-Monophosphate(+), Disodium guanylate(+), Distarch glycerine(+), Distarch glycerol(+), E620-5 Glutamates(+), FAME(+), Fatty acid esters of ascorbic acid(i) (+), Fatty acid esters of Ascorbyl palmitate(ii)(+), Fatty acid methyl ester(+), Ferrous lactate(&), glutamic acid(+), Glycerol(+), Glyceryl diacetate(+), Glyceryl diacetin(+), glyceryl distearate(+), Glyceryl monoacetate(+), glyceryl monostearate(+), Glyceryl triacetate(+), Glyceryl triacetin(+), Glycerylmonoacetin(+), Glycine and its sodium salt(+), Guanosine-5”-Monophosphoric Acid(+), Guanylic acid(+), guar gum(OK), Hydroxy propyl distarch glycerine(+), Hydroxy propyl distarch glycerol(+), Lactates(&), Lactic acid esters(+), Lactic Acid(&), Lactitol(&), Lactose(@), Lactylated fatty acid esters of glycerol and propane-1(+), Lanolin(@), L-cysteine hydrochloride monohydrate(+), L-cysteine hydrochloride(+), L-cysteine(+), Lecithins(+), L-leucin(+), Lysozyme(&), magnesium diglutamate(+), Magnesium Stearate(+), Magnesium stearate(+), Methyl esters of fatty acids(+), Mixed acetic and tartaric acid esters(+), Mono- and diacetyl tartaric acid esters(+), Mono- and Diglycerides of fatty acids(+), monoammonium glutamate(+), monopotassium glutamate(+), monosodium glutamate(+), MSG(+), Natural Orange Colour(+), Nicotinic acid(+), Orange Colour(+), Polyglycerol esters of fatty acids(+), Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate(+), Polyoxyethylene(20) sorbitan monolaurate polysorbate 20(+), Polyoxyethylene(20) sorbitan monooleate(polysorbate 80(+), Polyoxyethylene(20) sorbitan monopalmitate(polysorbate 40(+), Polyoxyethylene(20) sorbitan monostearate(polysorbate 60(+), Polyoxyethylene(20) sorbitan tristearate(polysorbate 65(+), Polyoxyethylene(40) stearate(+), Polyoxyethylene(8) stearate(+), Potassium 5”-Guanylate(+), Potassium Guanylate(+), Potassium Lactate(&), Potassium Nitrate(+), potassiumsalts of fatty acids(+), Propandiol 1-2(+), Propane-1-2-diol esters of fatty acids(+), propylene glycol esters of fatty acids(+), Propylene glycol(+), Riboflavin(lactoflavin)(&), Saltpetre(+), scorbyl palmitate(+), Sheep wool grease(@), Shellac(+), Sodium 5”-Guanylate(+), Sodium guanylate(+), Sodium Lactate(&), Sodium salts of fatty acids(+), Sodium Stearoyl-2-lactylate(+), Sorbitan Monolaurate(+), Sorbitan Monooleate(+), Sorbitan Monopalmitate(+), Sorbitan monostearate(+), Sorbitan trioleate(+), Sorbitan Tristearate(+), Stearic Acid Fatty Acid(+), Stearyl tartrate(+), Sucroglyceride(+), Sucrose esters of fatty acids(+), Tartaric acid esters(+), Thermally oxidized soya bean oil interacted with mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids(+), Tocopherols(+), Ureum Synthetic(ok), Vegetable Carbons(+), Vitamin B12(ok), vitamin B3(+), Vitamin C palmitate(+), vitamin E(+), Xanthophylls(+), Yellow food colour(&)
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